Despite numerous technological advances over the last several decades, ship-based hydrography remains the only method for obtaining high-quality, high spatial and vertical resolution measurements of a suite of physical, chemical, and biological parameters over the full water column. Ship-based hydrography is essential for documenting ocean changes throughout the water column, especially for the deep ocean below 2 km (52% of global ocean volume not sampled by profiling floats).
Global hydrographic surveys have been carried out approximately every decade since the 1970s through research programs such as GEOSECS, TTO/SAVE, WOCE / JGOFS, and CLIVAR. However, global repeat hydrography has lacked formal global organization since the end of WOCE and this has led to a lack of visibility for hydrography in the global observing system as well as a significant decrease in the number of trans-basin sections carried out by some countries. More importantly, the lack of international agreements for implementation of hydrographic sections has led to disparate data sharing policies, duplication of some sections, and sections being carried out without the full suite of core variables.
The Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) brings together scientists with interests in physical oceanography, the carbon cycle, marine biogeochemistry and ecosystems, and other users and collectors of ocean interior data, and coordinates a network of globally sustained hydrographic sections as part of the global ocean/climate observing system including physical oceanography, the carbon cycle, marine biogeochemistry and ecosystems.
GO-SHIP provides approximately decadal resolution of the changes in inventories of heat, freshwater, carbon, oxygen, nutrients and transient tracers, covering the ocean basins from coast to coast and full depth (top to bottom), with global measurements of the highest required accuracy to detect these changes. The GO-SHIP principal scientific objectives are: (1) understanding and documenting the large-scale ocean water property distributions, their changes, and drivers of those changes, and (2) addressing questions of how a future ocean that will increase in dissolved inorganic carbon, become more acidified and more stratified, and experience changes in circulation and ventilation processes due to global warming and altered water cycle.
The GO-SHIP Panel was established in 2007 by the IOCCP and CLIVAR to develop a strategy for a sustained global repeat hydrography program as a contribution to the OceanObs09 Conference (September 2009) and to revise the 1994 WOCE hydrographic program manual. Based on community discussions at the OceanObs09 Conference, the Panel recommended the development of a sustained repeat hydrography program to:
GO-SHIP data are publicly available without restriction. However, to demonstrate and allow tracking of their use and impact, please acknowledge any use of GO-SHIP data in a publication or product:
GO-SHIP Science Committee (SC): Terms of Reference (Version 23 January 2019, download pdf)
Purpose:The GO-SHIP Science Committee (GO-SHIP SC) provides scientific leadership and oversight for the development and implementation of the decadal global survey of hydrographic sections (known as GO-SHIP) operated by national research institutions.
Membership:The GO-SHIP SC shall be made up of scientists and technical experts from groups contributing to GO-SHIP. Normally there will be one representative of a national project but more members could be entrained in the case of large national contributors or specific expertise.
Ex officio Members:Ex officio members can include data management experts, stakeholders and representatives of parent organizations. In addition, consultants will attend the GO-SHIP SC meetings when required and by invitation. They can include representatives of GO-SHIP co-sponsoring bodies (WCRP/CLIVAR, JCOMM/OCG, IOCCP, and GOOS), representatives of organizations with whom GO-SHIP interacts and other representatives whose expertise is of value to a specific question or working group.
Leadership:The GO-SHP SC shall be co-chaired by two GO-SHIP SC members. Co-chairs should represent the diversity of the panel, including expertise and geographical representation The typical term of a co-chair will be 4 years and preferably they will have previously served on the GO-SHIP SC. The co-chairs are nominated by the GO-SHIP executive group and elected by endorsement of the GO-SHIP SC.
The GO-SHIP SC shall form an Executive Group consisting of
Meeting schedule:The GO-SHIP SC is scheduled to meet 3 times a year via teleconference, and every 2 years in person. While biannual meetings are strongly recommended few travel resources are available in GO-SHIP such that attendance is self-supported. A formal and informal meeting of the GO-SHIP SC, in conjunction with international scientific conferences, is encouraged. The GO-SHIP Executive Group interacts via email and teleconference.
Roles of and responsibilities of GO-SHIP SC members:GO-SHIP SC members shall be actively engaged in activities described in the TOR, including working groups addressing specific topics related to GO-SHIP; outreach; and tracking cruise progress and data submission. SC Members are considered national representatives and will track cruise under auspices of their nation, assuring cruises are run to GO-SHIP specifications, and data flow and disposition to the GO-SHIP data centers. They will act as a liaison with the chief scientists of the cruises and their national GO-SHIP community. Specifically they shall
Role and responsibilities of the part time (PT) JCOMMOPS Technical Coordinator for GO-SHIPThe Technical Coordinator fills an essential function in effective operation of the GO-SHIP SC and GO-SHIP operations. They will: